Today’s emergency management and homeland security practitioners often find themselves at an impasse in defining their individual responsibilities. If there is a clear line between what is considered to be a “homeland security” function or an “emergency management” function — or even what is common to both — it is still on the table for discussion.
This real-world dilemma between the boundaries is echoed in academia. When the DHS was created, a focus on terrorism pushed the concept of all-hazard disaster management to the back burner. Emergency management — having already developed higher education degrees, certifications, standards and associations — found itself struggling with homeland security for recognition, respect and funding.
“I call the gap between homeland security and emergency management ‘sibling rivalry,’” said David McIntyre, a visiting fellow at the Homeland Security Studies and Analysis Institute (HSI) and director of Homeland Security and Defense Programs at the National Graduate School. “One is older than the other, one recently has been flashier in the news. But when you get right down to it, they are both family.”
Nevertheless, beyond the conflict is a real dilemma for the academic side — whether to maintain and justify two similar but separate degree programs.
Focusing on Prevention
While academic degrees in emergency management have been flourishing for the past 15 years, homeland security degrees evolved as colleges and universities moved to fill national security needs in the aftermath of 9/11. Just as academia responded to World War II with courses in international relations, and the Cold War led to an increased emphasis on science and technology, academia responded to 9/11 with a curriculum that included topics such as intelligence analysis and critical infrastructure protection.
Supinski describes the early rifts between homeland security and emergency management as frustrating. “Emergency managers were saying this homeland security stuff is nothing new, just an added focus on terrorism,” he said. “There are very clear distinctions that differentiate these fields of study, but there is also substantial overlap.”
In Supinski’s view, what primarily differentiates homeland security and emergency management is prevention, which was added as a separate, fifth component to the four traditional emergency management phases of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
Prevention was added to the formula as part of the 2007 update of the National Fire Protection Association’s NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. Although the intent was to bring the standard into alignment with related disciplines, the addition was widely interpreted as trying to resolve the conflict between the all-hazards approach to emergency management and the need to enhance homeland security.
The intent wasn’t entirely successful as practitioners on both sides of the emergency management/homeland security fence bristled at the idea that there were enough similarities to put them in the same community, much less the same family.
Community and Commonality
Community was a big part of the problem, according to McIntyre. “It is important to understand [emergency management and homeland security] were two different communities and were entirely ignorant of each other,” he said. “And what happens when people don’t know each other? Suspicion and hostility.”
Reaction from academia to a need for community was scattered and the result was as convoluted as higher education can get. Existing emergency management or criminal justice programs were repurposed using existing curriculum, new courses were created, new degrees were approved. Progress made in building emergency management degree programs was discounted while processes already in place for developing standards and core competencies stalled. The discussions about how different or similar the fields are was skipped altogether. Recently there has been a lot of backtracking to try to pick up all those missing pieces.
If there is any agreement about what is common in both fields, it is the criticality of knowing, understanding and appreciating each other. Most of the current degree programs feature introductory courses for both homeland security and emergency management. That is certainly a start.
“In the past few years, especially at the FEMA Higher Ed Conference, I’m really glad to see the two sides [emergency management and homeland security educators] come together,” said Supinski. “I’m heartened by the atmosphere, the willingness to look across the aisle and recognize the fact that we all belong on the same side.”