After heavy hail hit 150 homes in Montgomery County, Ky., last March, the county’s emergency management director, Wesley Delk, set out to assess the damage. A key tool: an Android-based tablet computer that he used to take notes as well as geotag photos. He was able to add the pictures to a map later, showing where damage had occurred.
Delk and his deputy both use tablets for their daily work. “Now it’s engrained into the processes that we do,” he said. But it took about a year from the time Delk first started experimenting with work uses for his personal iPad until it became department policy to issue tablets.
Tablet computers are single-panel touchscreen computers that are smaller than a laptop but larger than a phone. Apple’s iPad made tablets popular with the public, and now users can choose from several consumer options: iPads, BlackBerry devices, Windows tablets or those that run Google’s Android operating system. Smaller tablets, such as Amazon’s Kindle Fire and Apple’s iPad Mini, also are available. And first responders whose work environment would be too hard on a consumer tablet can consider rugged tablets that are more durable.
Tablets are increasingly being adopted by the emergency management community for everything from note taking to sending warnings from the field. Tablets’ mobility and connectivity are big advantages.
|The National Library of Medicine has a Web page with links to government and nonprofit mobile apps for emergency managers:
But tablets can have drawbacks, including security concerns and technical limitations. And many in the emergency management community are still determining the best way to use them.
There are many options for using tablets to make emergency management work more efficient:
- Filling out and sending documents. In the past, when Delk did field reports, he would later have to go back to the office and transcribe them. Now, he fills out documents on his tablet and can send them from the field to others.
- Situational awareness. GPS, weather apps and GIS can all help emergency managers in the field or with planning.
When Bartlett gets a warning about a severe weather watch, he opens a weather app to check the radar. He also uses a free GIS app that helps to measure distances. When a hazardous chemical spill occurred near campus, Bartlett pulled up weather information on his tablet to find out the wind direction. He looked up the isolation distances for the chemical that had spilled and used a GIS app to measure how far the chemical was from the nearest campus building.
“It was unprecedented to have all of that information and tools available at your fingertips, using one single tool,” Bartlett said.
- Taking and searching notes. Bartlett takes notes with Evernote: “In addition to whatever I’m recording in the present meeting, I have access to my entire library of notes that I’ve taken at past events, and it’s searchable.”
- Keeping key documents at hand. Bartlett stores a copy of the university’s emergency operations plan on his tablet. Digital copies of other reference guides are also available.
- Sending warnings. Higher education institutions have to notify their communities of emergencies and certain crimes. “The sooner the information gets out, the more useful it is for people to take action to protect themselves. The tablet has become very useful for its ability to send messages” as the community has become accustomed to getting information quickly, Bartlett said. “We need to be as connected as our community.”
- Monitoring social media. Bartlett uses his tablet to stay on top of what community members are discussing on social networks. “Given the age of a large proportion of our audience, it’s important for us to be able to stay connected and communicate using the channels that our community uses,” he said.
- Just-in-time training. “There are so many possible tasks that may come up that it’s unrealistic to imagine that we’re ever going to pre-train everybody to carry around in their head all of the information and skills that they would need,” said Art Botterell, a disaster management consultant at the Silicon Valley campus of Carnegie Mellon University. Tablets allow emergency responders to deal with situations they haven’t been trained for, or those they have trained for but have never encountered.
One of the key attractions of tablets is that many tools people use at home can also help at work, including video-conferencing applications, GPS tools and file sharing services like Dropbox.
“Nobody designed Google as an emergency response tool, and yet it’s difficult to imagine many emergency responders who don’t frequently use Google as part of their job,” Botterell said.
There are, however, specialized apps for emergency managers. Cargo Decoder, for example, is a searchable version of the Emergency Response Guidebook that is distributed by transportation authorities in the United States, Canada and Mexico. A user can type in the four-digit code from the side of a truck or tanker and get more information about how to handle the substance inside in an emergency.
Unlike the printed version of the handbook, the electronic version is searchable by the name of the substance, the four-digit code, or just part of the four-digit code.